Thursday, May 21, 2020
This paper will offer insight on human rights and the part it plays in public administration. In addition, this paper will look at the potential ramifications that human rights writing may have for public administrators. Human Rights Reflection Paper Human rights and its role in public administration go hand in hand. I will offer reflection of human rights and its role in public administration. I will also examine the potential implications that human rights literature might have for public administrators. This paper will include the following: a detailed and objective description of the human rights issues presented in this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s readings; an explanation of the nature of the issue(s) and its significance to me as a public administrator; an explanation of what the readings meant to me in the context of my feelings, values, knowledge, and experience; an explanation of the implications these readings might have for public administrators and a summary of what I learned about myself as a public administrator based on my reaction to the readings. Description of Human Rights Issues Presented in This WeekÃ¢â¬â¢s Readings The current week s readings offer much understanding on the subject of human rights. In the article composed by Summer B. Twiss, she analyzes the commitments that international human rights groups can make to the framework for all intents and purposes a powerful worldwide ethic, particularly in light of progressing concerns about varying topics within abuses in theShow MoreRelatedHuman Rights And Public Administration Essay939 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswill offer insight on human rights and the part it plays in public administration. In addition, this paper will look at the potential ramifications that human rights writing may have for public administrators. Human Rights Reflection Paper Human rights and its role in public administration go hand in hand. I will offer reflection of human rights and its role in public administration. I will also examine the potential implications that human rights literature might have for public administrators. ThisRead MoreThe Environment Where Public Administration Is Being Implemented1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how challenging the environment where public administration is being implemented can be in countries that are just developing. The importance of governments and public administrators in these countries is high. They play a very important role when it comes to sustaining new development and maintain economic growth. The main roles of a government are to protect the environment, reduce socio-economic inequality, combat poverty, and support both social andRead MorePublic Administration and Ethics Essay677 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPublic Administration amp; Ethics In public administration, decisions are a lot of times made based upon ethical principles, which are the perception of what the general public would agree is correct. This helps keep the administrators ethical because they first must ask themselves if they will be under public scrutiny if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t make an ethical decision. Ethics has also placed additional burden on public administrators regarding how they handle their personal lives. When a person entersRead MorePublic Policy Vs. Administration863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPublic Policy and Administration is an interesting and important knowledge for all people. Every one on this earth, regardless of his profession, hobbies, or religious views, faces these concepts. This paper is going to describe the concepts of public policy and administration and an importance of this area for effective and efficient management. A public policy is an activity that has a good combination between politics and administrative activities. The major goal of public administration areRead More How Does the Public Sector Work? Essay1683 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIf you dont understand how the public sector is supposed to work, how can you ensure that it is working? An easy definition of public administration is, Ã¢â¬Å"the implementation of government policiesÃ¢â¬ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010), or, Ã¢â¬Å"the implementation of public policyÃ¢â¬ (Infoplease.com, 1997). While policies and procedures seem to be continuously up for debate, it should be noted that, an informed public are the only sure-fire way to ensure that the public sector stays on track with meeting theRead MorePublic Administration : An Image Problem1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic administration often suffers from an image problem. Society has constructed a caricature of stuffy bureaucrats who are only concerned with restrictive and complicat ed procedures just waiting to obstruct efficient government, however, this caricature couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be further removed from the reality of the work of public administration and administrators. While public administration has itÃ¢â¬â¢s roots in the early twentieth century as a rather droll academic pursuit it has evolved through the decadesRead MoreSpencer Hogue. February 27, 2017. Instructor: Mrs. Nutter.1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswaterboarded. What you just experienced was one of many common interrogation techniques used to pry information from suspected terrorists at Guantanamo Bay naval base. These techniques, while a violation of the U.S. ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s unalienable human rights and of international treaties on the treatment of prisoners, were used with justification laid in war time measures. This war that the United States was fighting was known as the War on Terror, defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"The ongoing campaign by the United StatesRead MorePublic Sector Organizational Theory ( Postmodernism )1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPublic Sector Organizational Theory Introduction This essay compares and contrasts the Ã¢â¬Å"ClassicalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Human RelationsÃ¢â¬ approaches to management. It focuses on how these approaches are similar and compatible and looks at their differences and incompatibilities. It then explores how systems theory and contingency theory can reconcile the incompatibilities between the approaches. The question of authority in public administration has historically been a tacit one framed in terms of the public administrationRead MoreThe Normative Foundations Of Public Service Ethics832 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Normative Foundations of Public Service Ethics Introduction Those thought to be ethical or moral are described in terms of their values in regards to honesty, integrity and good character. Our ethical conduct originates from our values which are greatly influenced by our morals; they provide guidance and are our standard for the ways in which we carry out and view right and wrong decisions. For these reasons, personal ethics are said to be our foundation and, as such, often influence how we administerRead MoreThe Rights Of The United States1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHuman rights are inherent to being human and essentially a right obtained by any being born in the world. These rights do not discriminate whether one was born in the United States or in Mexico. Essentially, they are what it means to be a human being, not if you are a citizen to a specific country. Lawful permanent residents of the United States prior to 1996 were eligible for public benefits programs suck as the Food Stamp Program, Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Temporary Assistance
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
According to Hanly (2016) many theories of management and styles of leadership exist. In the end, none of them are right and none of them are wrong. Different people respond better to different styles of leadership, however Hanly (2016) explains that to be a truly skilled leader a manager needs to be aware of the needs of their staff and adapt their leadership style to nurture the most productivity in employees. Riley (2016) describes three leadership styles and these are autocratic, paternalistic and democratic. However, Hanly (2016) expresses psychologist Kurt Lewin 1930Ã¢â¬â¢3 frame-work and it provided the styles autocratic and democratic but includes laissez-faire as the third leadership style. STEP 1. Managers need to identify their intrinsic leadership style. Autocratic leaders tend to maintain control and tell workers what to do. Democratic leaders support a sense of teamwork and listen to worker opinions before making a decision. Laissez-faire leaders are very hands-off, almost not leaders at all. However, are usually available when their help is requested (Hanly, 2016). 2. Managers need to recognize the pros and cons of their leadership styles. Autocratic leaders often get things done in less time and their workforce is usually quite productive, however, productivity slumps when the manager is not present (Hanly, 2016). Democratic leaders often gain the respect of their workers. Workers appreciate feeling valued and will work harder for that manager. This type ofShow MoreRelatedThe Change Management Theories, Techniques, And Leadership Styles918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstudying the change management theories, techniques, and leadership styles to make managing changes successfully, it is necessary to attend to the wider impacts of the change. Considering the tangible impacts of change, it s important to consider the personal impact on those affected, and their journey towards working and behaving in new ways to support the change. TheÃ Change CurveÃ is a useful model that describes the personal and organizational process of change. Change management focuses on peopleRead MoreLeadership Self Assessment Of The Field Of Nursing Leadership1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLeadership Self-Assessment In the field of nursing leadership is critical within the units and nursing practice. However, in the healthcare feel we may find ourselves interacting with different types of leaders. Upon completion of my leadership self-assessment, I was found to be a Participative, (democratic) type leader. To understand what this means the individual must understand that there are three main types of leadership styles. There is the Authoritarian, (autocratic) leader, participativeRead MoreLeadership Model Essay730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWhat is leadership? Leadership is the behaviour of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group towards a shared goal. (Hemphill and Coons, 1957, p.7) A leader is interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. How they set that direction and influence people depends on a variety of factors. To really comprehend the territory of leadership, one should briefly scan some of the major theories, notice various styles of leadershipRead MorePersonal Leadership And Management Style885 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNursing professions today assume the leadership and management responsibilities in any activity they involve in the health care system. Leadership and management are frequently intertwined. Huber (2006) defined leadership and management as, Ã¢â¬Å"the process of influencing people to accomplish a goal and management as coordinate and integrate of resource through planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, and controlling to accomplish a specific institutional goals and objectivesÃ¢â¬ (Huber, 2006, p.Read MoreEssay on Applied Business Research Case Study935 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe field of business management continues to evolve as organizations engage in the ever-changing global market. After years of unscrupulous corporate leaders managing and leading some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest corporations to failure, researchers and business leaders realize the need for ethical and sound leadership. The need for ethical and sound leadership helps to facilitate and manage daily operations and to sustain their competitive advantage within the global economy. However, with this evolutionRead MoreLeadership And Strategy : Diane Hunt Wagner1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Leadership and Strategy Sasha Kochen MGT/521 October 16, 2016 diane Hunt-Wagner Leadership and Strategy There is a great importance put on business leadership, this is directly due to how a business not only functions but in how fruitful the company can become. A great leader essentially can take a business plan that is weak yet turn it into a success, whereas a poor leader stands a higher chance of ruining the best of business plans. That is why it is essential to develop effectiveRead MoreDr. Martin Luther King Jr.1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesleader had. Later study moved to an assessment of the skills required for good leadership which could then be taught to others who were assigned leadership positions. In the search for a single method that would cover all situations, many studies had found that there is no one best way that covered all situations and that leadership style had to match the various situations as they occurred. Situation Leadership Theory (SLT) takes this search further by incorporating the motivating factors and abilitiesRead MoreA Research Study Of Nestle Being The Largest And Global Food And Beverage Retailer Based1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The stellar universe is not as difficult of comprehension as the real actions of other peopleÃ¢â¬ . Marcel Proust Management is the act of getting things done and organisations behaviour is a field of study which studies the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organisations. This research report encapsulates the concepts about leadership, behavioural theories, their effectiveness. It will also discuss organisational structures and their impact and effectiveness withinRead MoreLeadership Styles And Leadership Theories993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto the other two leadership styles, I scored next highest in the delegate category and the least amount in the authoritative category. In this paper I will give a comprehensive overview of leadership styles and leadership management theories and how they relate to my style. Lastly, I will discuss my type of work environment, and three key actions or behaviors that I must demonstrate to be a successful leader. Alignment with management and leadership theories Leadership theories include trait, attitudinalRead MoreChief Kobys Management Style1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Effective leaders opt to implement a specific type of leadership style as a result of their personalities and job experiences, and apply it to their organizational structure. However, that particular type of leadership style a leader utilizes may not apply to every job situation (Peak et al., 2010). In order to be an effective leader, an individual must acquire the three basic leadership skills and they are as follows: (1) human relations; (2) conceptual skills; and (3) technical skills
The culture of ancient Greece reflects the importance of the individual in society in many different ways. The Greeks used art, philosophy, and even their system of government to convey their beliefs in the importance of one single man in a society. Greek artists showed value for the individual. We will write a custom essay sample on Greek Cultural Influences or any similar topic only for you Order Now All people were portrayed in Greek art, from the sagging old woman to the ideal athlete. Although early Greek art focused on the human ideal, their later art shows that the Greeks appreciated all forms, and found the human body in general to be a beautiful thing. Even the gods in Greek art showed how highly the Greeks valued humanity. The gods were depicted as humans, and were made to human scale; no huge overpowering deity was ever portrayed in their art. The Greeks appreciated themselves in their art as much as they appreciated the gods. Even on the most famous temple of all time, the Parthenon, humans were portrayed. The frieze that adorned the upper face of the Parthenon depicted the human procession in honour of the god Athena. It was not just sculptures and architecture that showed Greek pride in the individual. Greek drama showed a huge appreciation for humans in all their glory. The Greeks valued human emotions; their plays covered a wide array of subjects, all the way from the tragedies of war to the comedic side of a society in the perils of war. These subjects made it possible to reveal the Greek appreciation for real life situations, showing the value they placed on human actions, but most of all on human nature. Like the various forms of Greek art, the government of ancient Greece appreciated the individual by creating an environment in which individuals were free to express themselves. Tyrants like Pisistratus and Cleisthenes came to power to try and make the polis a better place for the individual. These tyrants reformed the state in many ways; they helped make it possible for the rich and poor to have equal rights, and they created the conditions for the construction of the splendid monumental buildings ancient Greece is remembered for today. Although not all tyrants were good, they all had one thing in common: they were all citizens of Greece, and ruled to improve the lifestyle of the citizens of Greece. After the end of tyranny, Greece had a democracy; a government ruled by the people for the people. This democracy was made up of a number of committees who did everything from working the laws all the way to handling military affairs. Any man could become a member of these committees if they were at least eighteen years of age. Individuals were elected by the people for exactly one year. This system also made it so that even the poor citizens were not powerless, and it enabled Greek legislation to be governed by new people with new ideas every term. Clearly, the Greeks took advantage of the abilities of its citizens. Along with creating a fair society for its citizens to live in, the Greeks also promoted the forward thinking and ideas of its people. The philosophies of such Greeks as Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates helped shape Greek society in many ways. Plato valued the ability of all people, and believed that the ideal polis would be one in which every citizen would do his part according to his or her abilities, and there would be no distinguishing marks between the rich and the poor. Socrates also valued people in that he believed human beings and their environment are the essential subject of philosophical inquiry, meaning that humans and their actions were extremely complex and hard to understand, so they were worth studying. He also believed that the conscience of an individual provided better morals then even the laws of the government; he valued other peoples thoughts and what they had to say. The last of the three major Greek philosophers, Aristotle, believed that god had no purpose, and therefore people were to depend upon themselves. All of these philosophers are similar in that they all appreciated the thoughts and ideas of every individual, and their own ideas helped make it possible for all people of ancient Greece to appreciate what they had to say. The various characteristics of Greek society show pride in the individual in a number of different ways. The Greeks created an environment in which human actions, emotions, and imaginations were appreciated and encouraged. Humans were the subjects of statues, dramatic performances, and even philosophical debate. The Greeks were appreciated by themselves as well as the polis. How to cite Greek Cultural Influences, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Jurassic Park And Tech The girl shrieks as the giant tree trunk of a leg crashes down shaking the earth. Her screams are then drowned out by the prehistoric roar of the genetically engineered Tyrannosaurus Rex as it searches for prey (Crichton, 1991). Everyone remembers this scene from the best-selling novel by Michael Crichton, Jurassic Park. These scenes were then brought to life by producer/director Steven Spielberg in the immensely popular movie by the same name. Is this possible? As technological advances in molecular biology steam into the twenty-first century, many scientists have found themselves asking this very question. With continuing advancements in the methods of recombining DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), as well as the ability to read its genetic language, people have started wandering just how science fiction these ideas really are. There has been some limited success. DNA has been extracted and processed from some extinct organisms. Single-celled organisms have even been "awakened" from a long endosporic state, that do not exist in the same form in present times. The recent cloning of the sheep "Dolly" at the Rosalin Institute in Scotland has served as a wake up call to many as to the abilities modern biotechnology possesses (Currie and Psihoyos, 1996). Assuming one had all the necessary means, would it be possible to create an extinct organism with all the traits it once held? The answer seems to be yes. The feasibility of such a thing does not seem too far-fetched when one considers the rate at which science continues to break down barriers in all fields of study. So one final question brought before researchers on projects such as this is: If we could recreate the past through the recreation of long extinct animals, would we want to? Fossils and DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical basis of life (Campbell, 1996). All cells contain the strands of sugar and phosphate. These strands are held together by the four nucleotides; Adenine, Thiamin, Guanine, and Cytosine. Within these strands are millions of genes. These are what forms the organism, makes it unique, in essence the blueprints of life. DNA is eventually transcribed and translated into amino acids which carry out the function outlined within the specific gene (Campbell, 1996). It is because of this that many scientists have become skeptical of the ability of DNA to survive much more than a few thousand years. The viability of DNA is tested in this simple way. Amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, come in both left-handed and right-handed forms. Most organisms build proteins using left-handed amino acids known as L-enantiomers. After death, a chemical process known as racemization begins changing L-enantiomers into right-handed D-enantiomers until a balance is reached. Since racemization occurs at approximately the same rate as DNA degradation, scientists can use the ratio of D-enantiomers to L-enantiomers to determine the state of the organism's DNA. If extensive racemization has occurred, the DNA has deteriorated. Researchers have not been able to obtain reliable samples from remains in which the D-enantiomer content has reached ten percent. At this rate, DNA should break up within a few thousand years in warm climates and 100,000 years in cold climates (Monastesky, 1996). This casts much doubt on the plausibility that resurrecting a long since extinct species is possible. However, as it is not very plausible, it is somewhat possible. This could happen if fossils were to be entombed under certain circumstances that did not allow water, necessary for racemization to have access to the specimen(Monastesky, 1996). The fossils that have been made famous by Crichton are those in which smaller organisms happened to be trapped within tree sap, which later solidifies into the stone called amber. These fossilized specimens are kept void of oxygen and water (Sykes, 1997). Large amber quarries, such as the ones in the Dominican Republic, yield many fossils of this kind every year. It is this fossil that will be the main focus of DNA extraction in this paper. These are the main culprits in the sudden race among geneticists to be the one to extract and process the oldest DNA. To date, the oldest piece of isolated DNA came from a 125 million year old insect trapped within a bit of Lebanese amber by California Polytechnic Institute at San Luis Obispo researcher Raul Cano (C.F., 1993). Analyzed, the now extinct insect was found to resemble closest the modern day pine cone weevil. However, research is underway to extract protozoa from a 225 million year old piece of amber obtained by Robert Poinar at University of California at
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Bilbo is home making tea when several dwarves show up at his front door. To be exact, thirteen dwarves came one by one to his door. Bilbo let all the dwarves inside and gave them drink and food. The names of the dwarves were: Thorin, Oin, Gloin, Dwalin, Balin, Bifur, Kili, Fili, Bofur, Dori, Bombur, Nori and Ori. Thorin was their leader, and his full name was Thorin Oakenshield. The last person who showed up, was a wizard called Gandalf. Thorin had brought a map that showed the way to The Lonely Mountain where a great treasure was guarded by a big, red dragon called Smaug. The treasure was in general a big mine filled with gems, emeralds, gold, silver, diamonds and many other valuable items. The cave used to belong to ThorinÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestor, Thror, and Gandalf gave Thorin a special key that he needed when he was going to open a secret entrance in the mountain shown on the map. The reason why they were at BilboÃ¢â¬â¢s place was because they should invite him along on their journey . Gandalf recommended Bilbo, because he said that he was a useful burglar. After much discussion, they managed to get Bilbo with them in their party. They made plans and went off the very next day. In the second chapter, Roast Mutton, the party rested in the woods of Lonelands and caught sight of a bonfire. Bilbo was sent to investigate who had lit the fire in the wood, and discovered that it was three trolls who were eating a meal. Bilbo was now going to try his skills as a burglar. One of the trolls, whose name was William, had a magic purse that squeaked when Bilbo tried to steal it. The trolls caught Bilbo and were planning to eat him for supper. The rest of the dwarves got anxious, and wondered what had happened to poor, little Bilbo. The trolls also caught the dwarves after a struggle, and the trolls were about to eat them all when suddenly Gandalf who was hiding in the bushes started to confuse the trolls by imitating their voices. The trolls started to quarre... Free Essays on The Hobbit Free Essays on The Hobbit Bilbo is home making tea when several dwarves show up at his front door. To be exact, thirteen dwarves came one by one to his door. Bilbo let all the dwarves inside and gave them drink and food. The names of the dwarves were: Thorin, Oin, Gloin, Dwalin, Balin, Bifur, Kili, Fili, Bofur, Dori, Bombur, Nori and Ori. Thorin was their leader, and his full name was Thorin Oakenshield. The last person who showed up, was a wizard called Gandalf. Thorin had brought a map that showed the way to The Lonely Mountain where a great treasure was guarded by a big, red dragon called Smaug. The treasure was in general a big mine filled with gems, emeralds, gold, silver, diamonds and many other valuable items. The cave used to belong to ThorinÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestor, Thror, and Gandalf gave Thorin a special key that he needed when he was going to open a secret entrance in the mountain shown on the map. The reason why they were at BilboÃ¢â¬â¢s place was because they should invite him along on their journey . Gandalf recommended Bilbo, because he said that he was a useful burglar. After much discussion, they managed to get Bilbo with them in their party. They made plans and went off the very next day. In the second chapter, Roast Mutton, the party rested in the woods of Lonelands and caught sight of a bonfire. Bilbo was sent to investigate who had lit the fire in the wood, and discovered that it was three trolls who were eating a meal. Bilbo was now going to try his skills as a burglar. One of the trolls, whose name was William, had a magic purse that squeaked when Bilbo tried to steal it. The trolls caught Bilbo and were planning to eat him for supper. The rest of the dwarves got anxious, and wondered what had happened to poor, little Bilbo. The trolls also caught the dwarves after a struggle, and the trolls were about to eat them all when suddenly Gandalf who was hiding in the bushes started to confuse the trolls by imitating their voices. The trolls started to quarre... Free Essays on The Hobbit I choose to read J.R.R. TolkienÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The HobbitÃ¢â¬ for my first book report. This story takes place in a far away land; long, long ago. It is the story of a small, humble hobbit named Bilbo Baggins and his great and dangerous adventure. A hobbit is a hairy, fat man about half our size, and this particular one lived in a comfortable hobbit hole in a quiet community where adventures were unspoken of. One quiet and peaceful morning Gandalf, a kind and powerful wizard, came knocking at BilboÃ¢â¬â¢s door. Gandalf wanted Bilbo to join in on a great adventure that he was arranging. After days of negotiation Bilbo uneasily decides to join in on the adventure along with 13 dwarves, to raid the treasure of Smaug, a large and dangerous dragon. This story is packed full of surprise, suspense, mystery, conflict, dilemma, and foreshadowing throughout the chapters. A great example of this usage is near the end of BilboÃ¢â¬â¢s great adventure, when the time had come for him to advance forward and confront the dragon Smaug. Bilbo had been chosen to go forward into the dragonsÃ¢â¬â¢ lair to seek the treasure. During this process an outstanding example of suspense was played out. As Bilbo walked further and further into the lair suspense starts to build dramatically from the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s descriptions of heat, steam, and sounds coming from the end of the passage. At the moment before BilboÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter with the dragon Ã¢â¬Å"he knew that going on from there was the bravest thing heÃ¢â¬â¢d ever doneÃ¢â¬ , as quoted in the book. This part of the book exhibits only one of many great examples of mystery and suspense from the story. The protagonist, Bilbo Baggins, is truly a dynamic character. As described at the beginning of the book he was a very humble and peaceful hobbit that had no time for adventures. The first example of change happened when he accepted to go on GandalfÃ¢â¬â¢s adventure. But Bilbo still changed throughout the book as described by one of his dwarf co...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Tree Seedling or Sapling Transplant Instructions Homeowners often need to move or transplant trees within the yard. Trees may have been planted too thickly or threaten to out-grow available space. Size is a critical factor in transplanting. The larger a tree, the more difficult it is to transplant. If you have a small tree growing near your house, driveway, or patio, visualize it at full size and decide now if it must one day be moved. The longer you ignore it, the less likely you will be able to save the tree. Difficulty: Average Time Required: Takes approximately an hour to dig tree and replant tree (including prep time) What You Need: Planting or transplanting spadeAvailable water and mulch How to Transplant The perfect day to move your tree is when the humidity is high during early spring but just before its leaves begin to bud out. While roots take up most of a trees moisture, leaves will give moisture up through evaporation when under stress. Avoid moving trees with leaves.Preplanning helps! If you know a tree is to be moved in advance, root pruning will greatly increase the chances of successful transplanting. By severing the roots at or just beyond the drip line of the tree to be moved, the long unbranched roots will be broken. This prompts re-growth of new roots near the main trunk. It takes two to three seasons to fully root prune a treeÃ but can help even as early as six months. This will compact the existing root system and increase the trees chances of survival once it is moved.Younger and thus smaller is better. Increasing the size of a tree increases the effort it takes to transplant. It also decreases a trees chance of survival if not done properly. Leave moving trees over 4 inches in trunk diameter to the professionals. It is easier to transplant small stemmed trees and they will overcome the transplant shock much easier and quicker. Each tree you move needs a protective root ball for proper transplanting. Small root balls (up to about 12-14 inches in diameter) can be done with an ordinary spade. You want to preserve as much of the soil surrounding the feeder roots as you can. The feeder roots are located only in the upper few inches of the soil so be very careful with that portion of the ball.It is important that you have already prepared your planting site and that conditions are correct for successful growth. The tree you dig should not be exposed to the elements for very long. Be sure the tree will be able to reach full maturity without competition and provide a site where soil is deep, fertile, and well-drained.Dig the planting hole deep enough to accommodate roots without twisting and breaking either the roots or the soil ball. The hole should be as deep as the root ball and the tree roots transplanted to a depth approximating its original level.Follow these planting instructions and make sure you correctly mulch and water the transplanted tree. It is extremely important that the newly planted tree has adequate initial moisture and that it is maintained. Do not fertilize the tree for one year. Tips An approximate rule of thumb is to use a root ball 20 times the diameter of the trunk (as measured just above the basal flare) for trunks up to 1/2 of an inch in diameter, 18 times the diameter of the trunk for 1/2 -1 inch diameter trunks, 16 times the trunk diameter for trunks 1-1 1/2 inches in diameter, 14 times the trunk diameter for trunks 1 1/2 - 2 1/2 inches in diameter, and 12 times the trunk diameter for trunks 2 1/2-4 inches in diameter. For most trees and shrubs, the root ball depth should be about 8 inches for a 12 inch diameter root ball, ranging up to about 18 inches for a 48 inch diameter root ball.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Descartes First Meditation paper and Moore's Certainty paper - Essay Example Descartes work was centered on the issues that challenge oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be certain about something. His path to establish certainty begins a state of doubt. It is this doubt that prompts him to choose to demolish all the knowledge he had in the past (Descartes 87). He will then start afresh through testing the validity of things before being certain of their existence. He searches to establish a foundation of philosophy that cannot be shaken. This is because much of the knowledge he obtained in the past was through senses that at times are deceptive. In this he highlights, it is somehow difficult to distinguish when one is asleep and when awake. He majors on meditation, which is regarded as a philosophical classic. However, he provocatively pursues the issues to do with these important matters. Provocatively, Moore challenges the argument concerning ones inability to know whether he is dreaming. In the logical inversion of Descartes argument, Moore argues that, if one knows not that he is dreaming, one knows not that he standing. Additionally, people is unsure of his standing and realize that he is not hallucinating, (Moore 30). This is logical since one can only dream when asleep. Additionally, one can be dreaming or think he is standing and in actual sense, he is standing. This is the only case where dreaming and thinking to standing and standing at the same time is consistent. MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s concern on external worldÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is evident. Given the reality, it is impractical to prove its existence. According to him, so many oppositions can, be used to prove the existence of the external world. In his illustration to demonstrate the fact about the existence of the world, he uses his hands. For instance, when he holds up his hands, it is certain that he is holding up his hands. The conclusion from the above illustration shows it is true that he has hands. If it has truth in it, more illustrations are also true. About external world issue, similar proofs can be used to tell the existence of it (Kim and Sosa 30). While Descartes says that dreams have taken place, he not sure he is dreaming. This is to mean that he does not know that the dreaming has taken place. In evaluating Descartes ides, Ã¢â¬Å"doubtÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"thinkingÃ¢â¬ brings inconsistency the ideas. Descartes is unsure of his existence, although he thinks he does. The reason validating his doubt is that he may be dreaming or is being deceived by a demon that he exists. The reason for him to think he exists is th at he is only thinking without any objective proof of his existence. The proof about his existence is only subjective. He is unable to convince others of his existence, (Moore 34). Descartes argument has weaknesses and strengthens. He says that all things he knew as truth in his childhood have been falsehoods. This is a weak argument because; lack of proof cannot guarantee one to assume it is false. He later justifies his attempt to ruin that entire truth he had known over years and started afresh. He wanted something that had a strong foundation that did not rest on mere assumptions and feelings (Descartes 87). This is quite right to be passionate to do away with former opinions unless tested to be true. Additionally, he says not all the ideas and information he has is false. He makes an excuse that, for the opinions that he is not certain with, he will not touch on them. This gives a loophole for doubt and uncertainty. To assess which opinions are not certain would be a tedious jo b; therefore, he will not go through